Case Study: Electric digital data processing - G06F

In recent years, there has high patenting activity in 'Electric digital data processing'. The increase in patent publication occured in 2008, when 61,152 patents were published which lead to higher publication in the subsequent years. As of the date of this report, this category consists of 906,031 US patents.

The most influential patent in 'Electric digital data processing' is the 'Systems and methods for secure transaction management and electronic rights protection' (US 5892900), by Karl L Ginter granted in 1999 for InterTrust Technologies. However, in the last ten years, it is the patent 'System and methods for processing analyte sensor data' (US 6931327) by Paul V Goode Jr granted in 2005 for Dexcom that has been cited the most.

The Major Players map shows the top organizations in terms of patenting activities in the set of patents belonging to IPC-G06F, Electric digital data processing. The patent count for each organization aggregates patents granted to subsidiaries, joint venture units and other entities linked to the organization.

Since the dataset consists of all patents related to Electric digital data processing, the top patenting organizations in the domain are in a unique position to influence technology development in the field. The significant size of the patent portfolio of these organizations in the domain as compared to others puts them in an enabling position where they have the ability to exploit their IP assets towards their business goals and objectives, and maximizing returns from their investments in the domain.

The Key Counsel map shows the firms (and agents) handling drafting and prosecution work for the patents in 'Electric digital data processing'. These firms have possibly amassed considerable experience and suitable expertise in patent related work originating from this category. As such, they would be good candidates to engage for patenting work relating to similar fields. Agents and attorney firms can obtain useful information for their competitive intelligence requirements from this map.

Source: July 2015

A01 - Agriculture; forestry; animal husbandry; hunting; trapping; fishing
A01B - Soil working in agriculture or forestry; parts, details, or accessories of agricultural machines ...
A01C - Planting; sowing; fertilising
A01D - Harvesting; mowing
A01F - Threshing; baling of straw, hay or the like; stationary apparatus or hand tools for forming or ...
A01G - Horticulture; cultivation of vegetables, flowers, rice, fruit, vines, hops, or seaweed; forestry; ...
A01H - New plants or processes for obtaining them; plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques
A01J - Manufacture of dairy products
A01K - Animal husbandry; care of birds, fishes, insects; fishing; rearing or breeding animals, not ...
A01L - Shoeing of animals
A01M - Catching, trapping or scaring of animals; apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or ...
A01N - Preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; biocides, e.g. as ...
A01P - Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical ...
Foodstuffs; tobacco
A21 - Baking; equipment for making or processing doughs; doughs for baking
A21C - Machines or equipment for making or processing doughs; handling baked articles made from dough
A21D - Treatment, e.g. preservation, of flour or dough for baking, e.g. by addition of materials; baking; ...
A22 - Butchering; meat treatment; processing poultry or fish
A22C - Processing meat, poultry, or fish
A23 - Foods or foodstuffs; their treatment, not covered by other classes
A23B - Preserving, e.g. by canning, meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables, edible seeds; chemical ripening ...
A23C - Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; milk or cheese substitutes; making thereof
A23D - Edible oils or fats, e.g. margarines, shortenings, cooking oils
A23F - Coffee; tea; their substitutes; manufacture, preparation, or infusion thereof
A23G - Cocoa; cocoa products, e.g. chocolate; substitutes for cocoa or cocoa products; confectionery; ...
A23J - Protein compositions for foodstuffs; working-up proteins for foodstuffs; phosphatide compositions ...
A23K - Fodder
A23L - ; their preparation or treatment, e.g. cooking, modification of nutritive qualities, physical ...
A23N - Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit, vegetables, or flower bulbs in bulk, not ...
A23P - Shaping or working of foodstuffs, not fully covered by a single other subclass
A24 - Tobacco; cigars; cigarettes; smokers requisites
A24C - Machines for making cigars or cigarettes
A24D - Cigars; cigarettes; tobacco smoke filters; mouthpieces for cigars or cigarettes; manufacture of ...
A24F - Smokers requisites; match boxes
Personal or domestic articles
A41 - Wearing apparel
A41C - Corsets; brassières
A41D - Outerwear; protective garments; accessories
A41F - Garment fastenings; suspenders
A41G - Artificial flowers; wigs; masks; feathers
A41H - Appliances or methods for making clothes, e.g. for dress-making, for tailoring, not otherwise ...
A42 - Headwear
A42B - Hats; head coverings
A42C - Manufacturing or trimming hats or other head coverings
A43 - Footwear
A43B - Characteristic features of footwear; parts of footwear
A43C - Fastenings or attachments for footwear; laces in general
A43D - Machines, tools, equipment or methods for manufacturing or repairing footwear
A44 - Haberdashery; jewellery
A44B - Buttons, pins, buckles, slide fasteners, or the like
A44C - Jewellery; bracelets; other personal adornments; coins
A45 - Hand or travelling articles
A45C - Purses; luggage; hand carried bags
A45D - Hairdressing or shaving equipment; manicuring or other cosmetic treatment
A45F - Travelling or camp equipment; sacks or packs carried on the body
A46 - Brushware
A46D - Manufacture of brushes
A47 - Furniture; domestic articles or appliances; coffee mills; spice mills; suction cleaners in general
A47B - Tables; desks; office furniture; cabinets; drawers; general details of furniture
A47C - Chairs; sofas; beds
A47D - Furniture specially adapted for children
A47F - Special furniture, fittings, or accessories for shops, storehouses, bars, restaurants, or the ...
A47G - Household or table equipment
A47H - Furnishings for windows or doors
A47J - Kitchen equipment; coffee mills; spice mills; apparatus for making beverages
A47K - Sanitary equipment not otherwise provided for; toilet accessories
A47L - Domestic washing or cleaning; suction cleaners in general
Health; life-saving; amusement
A61 - Medical or veterinary science; hygiene
A61B - Diagnosis; surgery; identification
A61C - Dentistry; apparatus or methods for oral or dental hygiene
A61D - Veterinary instruments, implements, tools, or methods
A61F - Filters implantable into blood vessels; prostheses; devices providing patency to, or preventing ...
A61G - Transport, personal conveyances, or accommodation specially adapted for patients or disabled ...
A61H - Physical therapy apparatus, e.g. devices for locating or stimulating reflex points in the body; ...
A61J - Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes; devices or methods specially ...
A61K - Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes
A61L - Methods or apparatus for sterilising materials or objects in general; disinfection, sterilisation, ...
A61M - Devices for introducing media into, or onto, the body; devices for transducing body media or for ...
A61N - Electrotherapy; magnetotherapy; radiation therapy; ultrasound therapy
A61P - Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations
A61Q - Use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
A62 - Life-saving; fire-fighting
A62B - Devices, apparatus or methods for life-saving
A62C - Fire-fighting
A62D - Chemical means for extinguishing fires; processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, ...
A63 - Sports; games; amusements
A63B - Apparatus for physical training, gymnastics, swimming, climbing, or fencing; ball games; training ...
A63C - Skates; skis; roller skates; design or layout of courts, rinks or the like
A63D - Bowling-alleys; bowling games; boccia; bowls; bagatelle; billiards
A63F - Card, board, or roulette games; indoor games using small moving playing bodies; games not ...
A63G - Merry-go-rounds; swings; rocking-horses; chutes; switchbacks; similar devices for public amusement
A63H - Toys, e.g. tops, dolls, hoops, building blocks
A63J - Devices for theatres, circuses, or the like; conjuring appliances or the like
A63K - Racing; riding sports; equipment or accessories therefor
Separating; mixing
B01 - Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general
B01D - Separation
B01F - Mixing, e.g. dissolving, emulsifying, dispersing
B01J - Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysis, colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus
B01L - Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus for general use
B02 - Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating; preparatory treatment of grain for milling
B02B - Preparing grain for milling; refining granular fruit to commercial products by working the surface
B02C - Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating in general; milling grain
B03 - Separation of solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs; magnetic or ...
B03B - Separating solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs
B03C - Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids; separation ...
B03D - Flotation; differential sedimentation
B04 - Centrifugal apparatus or machines for carrying-out physical or chemical processes
B04C - Apparatus using free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones
B05 - Spraying or atomising in general; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B05B - Spraying apparatus; atomising apparatus; nozzles
B05C - Apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B05D - Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B06 - Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
B06B - Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
B07 - Separating solids from solids; sorting
B07B - Separating solids from solids by sieving, screening, or sifting or by using gas currents; other ...
B07C - Postal sorting; sorting individual articles, or bulk material fit to be sorted piece-meal, e.g. by ...
B08 - Cleaning
B08B - Cleaning in general; prevention of fouling in general
B09 - Disposal of solid waste; reclamation of contaminated soil
B09C - Reclamation of contaminated soil
B21 - Mechanical metal-working without essentially removing material; punching metal
B21B - Rolling of metal
B21C - Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products ...
B21D - Working or processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing ...
B21F - Working or processing of wire
B21G - Making needles, pins, or nails
B21H - Making particular metal objects by rolling, e.g. screws, wheels, rings, barrels, balls
B21J - Forging; hammering; pressing; riveting; forge furnaces
B21K - Making forged or pressed products, e.g. horse-shoes, rivets, bolts, wheels
B21L - Making chains
B22 - Casting; powder metallurgy
B22C - Foundry moulding
B22D - Casting of metals; casting of other substances by the same processes or devices
B22F - Working metallic powder; manufacture of articles from metallic powder; making metallic powder
B23 - Machine tools; metal-working not otherwise provided for
B23B - Turning; boring
B23C - Milling
B23D - Planing; slotting; shearing; broaching; sawing; filing; scraping; like operations for working ...
B23F - Making gears or toothed racks
B23G - Thread cutting; working of screws, bolt heads, or nuts, in conjunction therewith
B23H - Working of metal by the action of a high concentration of electric current on a workpiece using an ...
B23K - Soldering or unsoldering; welding; cladding or plating by soldering or welding; cutting by ...
B23P - Other working of metal; combined operations; universal machine tools
B23Q - Details, components, or accessories for machine tools, e.g. arrangements for copying or ...
B24 - Grinding; polishing
B24B - Machines, devices, or processes for grinding or polishing; dressing or conditioning of abrading ...
B24C - Abrasive or related blasting with particulate material
B24D - Tools for grinding, buffing, or sharpening
B25 - Hand tools; portable power-driven tools; handles for hand implements; workshop equipment; ...
B25B - Tools or bench devices not otherwise provided for, for fastening, connecting, disengaging, or ...
B25C - Hand-held nailing or stapling tools; manually-operated portable stapling tools
B25D - Percussive tools
B25F - Combination or multi-purpose tools not otherwise provided for; details or components of portable ...
B25G - Handles for hand implements
B25H - Workshop equipment, e.g. for marking-out work; storage means for workshops
B25J - Manipulators; chambers provided with manipulation devices
B26 - Hand cutting tools; cutting; severing
B26B - Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for
B26D - Cutting; details common to machines for severing, e.g. by cutting, perforating, punching, stamping- ...
B26F - Perforating; punching; cutting-out; stamping-out; severing by means other than cutting
B27 - Working or preserving wood or similar material; nailing or stapling machines in general
B27C - Planing, drilling, milling, turning, or universal machines
B27D - Working veneer or plywood
B27F - Dovetailed work; tenons; slotting machines; nailing or stapling machines
B27G - Accessory machines or apparatus; tools; safety devices, e.g. for saws
B27H - Bending; cooperage; wheel-making
B27J - Mechanical working of cane, cork, or similar materials
B27K - Processes, apparatus or selection of substances for impregnating, staining, dyeing, bleaching of ...
B27L - Removing bark or vestiges of branches; splitting wood; manufacture of veneer, wooden sticks, wood ...
B27M - ; manufacture of specific wooden articles
B27N - Manufacture by dry processes of articles, with or without organic binding agents, made from ...
B28 - Working cement, clay, or stone
B28B - Shaping clay or other ceramic compositions, slag or mixtures containing cementitious material, e. ...
B28C - Preparing clay; producing mixtures containing clay or cementitious material, e.g. plaster
B28D - Working stone or stone-like materials
B29 - Working of plastics; working of substances in a plastic state in general
B29B - Preparation or pretreatment of the material to be shaped; making granules or preforms; recovery of ...
B29C - Shaping or joining of plastics; shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general; after- ...
B29D - Producing particular articles from plastics or from substances in a plastic state
B30 - Presses
B30B - Presses in general; presses not otherwise provided for
B31 - Making paper articles; working paper
B31B - Making boxes, cartons, envelopes, or bags
B31C - Making wound articles, e.g. wound tubes
B31D - Making other paper articles
B31F - Mechanical working or deformation of paper or cardboard
B32 - Layered products
B32B - Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or ...
B41 - Printing; lining machines; typewriters; stamps
B41C - Processes for the manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces
B41D - Apparatus for the mechanical reproduction of printing surfaces for stereotype printing; shaping ...
B41F - Printing machines or presses
B41G - Apparatus for bronze printing, line printing, or for bordering or edging sheets or like articles; ...
B41J - Typewriters; selective printing mechanisms, i.e. mechanisms printing otherwise than from a forme; ...
B41K - Stamps; stamping or numbering apparatus or devices
B41L - Apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating, or printing for office or other commercial ...
B41M - Printing, duplicating, marking, or copying processes; colour printing
B41N - Printing plates or foils; materials for surfaces used in printing machines for printing, inking, ...
B42 - Bookbinding; albums; files; special printed matter
B42C - Bookbinding
B42D - Books; book covers; loose leaves; printed matter of special format or style not otherwise provided ...
B42F - Sheets temporarily attached together; filing appliances; file cards; indexing
B43 - Writing or drawing implements; bureau accessories
B43K - Implements for writing or drawing
B43L - Articles for writing or drawing upon; accessories for writing or drawing
B43M - Bureau accessories not otherwise provided for
B44 - Decorative arts
B44C - Producing decorative effects; mosaics; tarsia work; paperhanging
B44D - Painting or artistic drawing, not otherwise provided for; preserving paintings; surface treatment ...
B44F - Special designs or pictures
B60 - Vehicles in general
B60B - Vehicle wheels; castors; axles; increasing wheel adhesion
B60C - Vehicle tyres; tyre inflation; tyre changing; connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies in ...
B60D - Vehicle connections
B60F - Vehicles for use both on rail and on road; amphibious or like vehicles; convertible vehicles
B60G - Vehicle suspension arrangements
B60H - Arrangements or adaptations of heating, cooling, ventilating, or other air-treating devices ...
B60J - Windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors, or similar devices for vehicles; removable external ...
B60K - Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units or of transmissions in vehicles; arrangement or ...
B60L - Electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles; magnetic suspension or ...
B60M - Power supply lines, or devices along rails, for electrically-propelled vehicles
B60N - Vehicle passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for
B60P - Vehicles adapted for load transportation or to transport, to carry, or to comprise special loads ...
B60Q - Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits ...
B60R - Vehicles, vehicle fittings, or vehicle parts, not otherwise provided for
B60S - Servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring of vehicles, not otherwise ...
B60T - Vehicle brake control systems or parts thereof; brake control systems or parts thereof, in ...
B60V - Air-cushion vehicles
B60W - Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function; control systems ...
B61 - Railways
B61B - Railway systems; equipment therefor not otherwise provided for
B61C - Locomotives; motor railcars
B61D - Body details or kinds of railway vehicles
B61F - Rail vehicle suspensions, e.g. underframes, bogies, arrangements of wheel axles; rail vehicles for ...
B61G - Couplings specially adapted for railway vehicles; draught or buffing appliances specially adapted ...
B61H - Brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles; arrangements or dis-positions of ...
B61J - Shifting or shunting of rail vehicles
B61K - Other auxiliary equipment for railways
B61L - Guiding railway traffic; ensuring the safety of railway traffic
B62 - Land vehicles for travelling otherwise than on rails
B62B - Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts or perambulators; sledges
B62C - Vehicles drawn by animals
B62D - Motor vehicles; trailers
B62H - Cycle stands; supports or holders for parking or storing cycles; appliances preventing or ...
B62J - Cycle saddles or seats; accessories peculiar to cycles and not otherwise provided for, e.g. ...
B62K - Cycles; cycle frames; cycle steering devices; rider-operated terminal controls specially adapted ...
B62L - Brakes specially adapted for cycles
B62M - Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles or sledges; powered propulsion of sledges or cycles; ...
B63 - Ships or other waterborne vessels; related equipment
B63B - Ships or other waterborne vessels; equipment for shipping
B63C - Launching, hauling-out, or dry-docking of vessels; life-saving in water; equipment for dwelling or ...
B63G - Offensive or defensive arrangements on vessels; mine-laying; mine-sweeping; submarines; aircraft ...
B63H - Marine propulsion or steering
B63J - Auxiliaries on vessels
B64 - Aircraft; aviation; cosmonautics
B64C - Aeroplanes; helicopters
B64D - Equipment for fitting in or to aircraft; flying suits; parachutes; arrangements or mounting of ...
B64F - Ground or aircraft-carrier-deck installations
B64G - Cosmonautics; vehicles or equipment therefor
B65 - Conveying; packing; storing; handling thin or filamentary material
B65B - Machines, apparatus or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials; unpacking
B65C - Labelling or tagging machines, apparatus, or processes
B65D - Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, ...
B65F - Gathering or removal of domestic or like refuse
B65G - Transport or storage devices, e.g. conveyers for loading or tipping; shop conveyer systems; ...
B65H - Handling thin or filamentary material, e.g. sheets, webs, cables
B66 - Hoisting; lifting; hauling
B66B - Elevators; escalators or moving walkways
B66C - Cranes; load-engaging elements or devices for cranes, capstans, winches, or tackles
B66D - Capstans; winches; tackles, e.g. pulley blocks; hoists
B66F - Hoisting, lifting, hauling, or pushing, not otherwise provided for, e.g. devices which apply a ...
B67 - Opening or closing bottles, jars or similar containers; liquid handling
B67C - Filling with liquids or semiliquids, or emptying, of bottles, jars, cans, casks, barrels, or ...
B67D - Dispensing, delivering, or transferring liquids, not otherwise provided for
B68 - Saddlery; upholstery
B68C - Saddles; stirrups
B68F - Making articles from leather, canvas, or the like
B68G - Methods, equipment, or machines for use in upholstering; upholstery not otherwise provided for
Micro-structural technology; nano-technology
B81 - Micro-structural technology
B81C - Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural ...
B82 - Nano-technology
B82B - Nano-structures; manufacture or treatment thereof
C01 - Inorganic chemistry
C01B - Non-metallic elements; compounds thereof
C01C - Ammonia; cyanogen; compounds thereof
C01D - Compounds of alkali metals, i.e. lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, or francium
C01F - Compounds of the metals beryllium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium, ...
c01g -
C02 - Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge
C02F - Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge
C03 - Glass; mineral or slag wool
C03B - Manufacture or shaping of glass, or of mineral or slag wool; supplementary processes in the ...
C03C - Chemical composition of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels; surface treatment of glass; surface ...
C04 - Cements; concrete; artificial stone; ceramics; refractories
C04B - Lime; magnesia; slag; cements; compositions thereof, e.g. mortars, concrete or like building ...
C05 - Fertilisers; manufacture thereof
C05C - Nitrogenous fertilisers
C05D - ; fertilisers producing carbon dioxide
C05F - , e.g. fertilisers from waste or refuse
C05G - ; mixtures of one or more fertilisers with materials not having a specific fertilising activity, e. ...
C06 - Explosives; matches
C06C - Detonating or priming devices; fuses; chemical lighters; pyrophoric compositions
C06D - Means for generating smoke or mist; gas-attack compositions; generation of gas for blasting or ...
C06F - Matches; manufacture of matches
C07 - Organic chemistry
C07C - Acyclic or carbocyclic compounds
C07D - Heterocyclic compounds
C07F - Acyclic, carbocyclic, or heterocyclic compounds containing elements other than carbon, hydrogen, ...
C07G - Compounds of unknown constitution
C07H - Sugars; derivatives thereof; nucleosides; nucleotides; nucleic acids
C07J - Steroids
C07K - Peptides
C08 - Organic macromolecular compounds; their preparation or chemical working-up; compositions based ...
C08C - Treatment or chemical modification of rubbers
C08F - Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
C08G - Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon ...
C08H - Derivatives of natural macromolecular compounds
C08J - Working-up; general processes of compounding;
C08K - Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
C08L - Compositions of macromolecular compounds
C09 - Dyes; paints; polishes; natural resins; adhesives; compositions not otherwise provided for; ...
C09B - Organic dyes or closely-related compounds for producing dyes; mordants; lakes
C09C - Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or ...
C09D - Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes, lacquers; filling pastes; chemical paint or ink ...
C09F - Natural resins; french polish; drying-oils; driers (siccatives); turpentine
C09G - Polishing compositions other than french polish; ski waxes
C09H - Preparation of glue or gelatine
C09J - Adhesives; adhesive processes in general (non-mechanical part); adhesive processes not provided ...
C09K - Materials for applications not otherwise provided for; applications of materials not otherwise ...
C10 - Petroleum, gas or coke industries; technical gases containing carbon monoxide; fuels; lubricants; ...
C10B - Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials for production of gas, coke, tar, or similar ...
C10C - Working-up tar, pitch, asphalt, bitumen; pyroligneous acid
C10F - Drying or working-up of peat
C10G - Cracking hydrocarbon oils; production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, e.g. by destructive ...
C10H - Production of acetylene by wet methods
C10J - Production of producer gas, water-gas, synthesis gas from solid carbonaceous material, or mixtures ...
C10K - Purifying or modifying the chemical composition of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
C10L - Fuels not otherwise provided for; natural gas; ; liquefied petroleum gas; use of additives to ...
C10M - Lubricating compositions; use of chemical substances either alone or as lubricating ingredients in ...
C11 - Animal or vegetable oils, fats, fatty substances or waxes; fatty acids therefrom; detergents; ...
C11B - Producing, e.g. by pressing raw materials or by extraction from waste materials, refining or ...
C11C - Fatty acids from fats, oils or waxes; candles; fats, oils or fatty acids by chemical modification ...
C11D - Detergent compositions; use of single substances as detergents; soap or soap-making; resin soaps; ...
C12 - Biochemistry; beer; spirits; wine; vinegar; microbiology; enzymology; mutation or genetic ...
C12F - Recovery of by-products of fermented solutions; denaturing of, or denatured, alcohol
C12G - Wine; other alcoholic beverages; preparation thereof
C12H - Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, ageing of alcoholic ...
C12J - Vinegar; its preparation
C12L - Pitching or depitching machines; cellar tools
C12M - Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology
C12N - Micro-organisms or enzymes; compositions thereof; propagating, preserving, or maintaining micro- ...
C12P - Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or ...
C12Q - Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; compositions or test papers ...
C12S - Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms to liberate, separate or purify a pre-existing compound ...
C13 - Sugar industry
C13D - Production or purification of sugar juices
C13F - Preparation or processing of raw sugar, sugar, or syrup
C13G - Evaporation apparatus; boiling pans
C13H - Cutting machines for sugar; combined cutting, sorting and packing machines for sugar
C13J - Extraction of sugar from molasses
C13K - Glucose; invert sugar; lactose; maltose; synthesis of sugars by hydrolysis of di- or polysaccharides
C14 - Skins; hides; pelts; leather
C14C - Chemical treatment of hides, skins or leather, e.g. tanning, impregnating, finishing; apparatus ...
C21 - Metallurgy of iron
C21B - Manufacture of iron or steel
C21C - Processing of pig-iron, e.g. refining, manufacture of wrought-iron or steel; treatment in molten ...
C21D - Modifying the physical structure of ferrous metals; general devices for heat treatment of ferrous ...
C22 - Metallurgy; ferrous or non-ferrous alloys; treatment of alloys or non-ferrous metals
C22B - Production or refining of metals; pretreatment of raw materials
C22C - Alloys
C22F - Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or non-ferrous alloys
C23 - Coating metallic material; coating material with metallic material; chemical surface treatment; ...
C23C - Coating metallic material; coating material with metallic material; surface treatment of metallic ...
C23D - Enamelling of, or applying a vitreous layer to, metals
C23F - Non-mechanical removal of metallic material from surfaces; inhibiting corrosion of metallic ...
C23G - Cleaning or de-greasing of metallic material by chemical methods other than electrolysis
C25 - Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes; apparatus therefor
C25B - Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes for the production of compounds or non- metals; ...
C25C - Processes for the electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals; apparatus therefor
C25D - Processes for the electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings; electroforming; joining ...
C25F - Processes for the electrolytic removal of materials from objects; apparatus therefor
C30 - Crystal growth
C30B - Single-crystal growth; unidirectional solidification of eutectic material or unidirectional ...
Combinatorial technology
C40 - Combinatorial technology
C40B - Combinatorial chemistry; libraries
Textiles or flexible materials not otherwise provided for
D01 - Natural or artificial threads or fibres; spinning
D01C - Chemical treatment of natural filamentary or fibrous material to obtain filaments or fibres for ...
D01D - Mechanical methods or apparatus in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, ...
D01F - Chemical features in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles, or ...
D01G - Preliminary treatment of fibres, e.g. for spinning
D01H - Spinning or twisting
D02 - Yarns; mechanical finishing of yarns or ropes; warping or beaming
D02G - Crimping or curling fibres, filaments, yarns, or threads; yarns or threads
D02H - Warping, beaming, or leasing
D02J - Finishing or dressing of filaments, yarns, threads, cords, ropes, or the like
D03 - Weaving
D03D - Woven fabrics; methods of weaving; looms
D03J - Auxiliary weaving apparatus; weavers tools; shuttles
D04 - Braiding; lace-making; knitting; trimmings; non-woven fabrics
D04B - Knitting
D04C - Braiding or manufacture of lace, including bobbin-net or carbonised lace; braiding machines; ...
D04D - Trimmings; ribbons, tapes, or bands, not otherwise provided for
D04G - Making nets by knotting of filamentary material; making knotted carpets or tapestries; knotting ...
D04H - Making textile fabrics, e.g. from fibres or filamentary material; fabrics made by such processes ...
D05 - Sewing; embroidering; tufting
D05B - Sewing
D05C - Embroidering; tufting
D06 - Treatment of textiles or the like; laundering; flexible materials not otherwise provided for
D06C - Finishing, dressing, tentering, or stretching textile fabrics
D06F - Laundering, drying, ironing, pressing or folding textile articles
D06G - Mechanical or pressure cleaning of carpets, rugs, sacks, hides, or other skin or textile articles ...
D06H - Marking, inspecting, seaming, or severing textile materials
D06J - Pleating, kilting, or goffering textile fabrics or wearing apparel
D06L - Bleaching, e.g. optical bleaching, dry-cleaning, or washing fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, ...
D06M - , of fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers, or fibrous goods made from such materials
D06N - Wall, floor, or like covering materials, e.g. linoleum, oilcloth, artificial leather, roofing ...
D06P - Dyeing or printing textiles; dyeing leather, furs, or solid macromolecular substances in any form
D06Q - Decorating textiles
D07 - Ropes; cables other than electric
D07B - Ropes or cables in general
D21 - Paper-making; production of cellulose
D21C - Production of cellulose by removing non-cellulose substances from cellulose- containing materials; ...
D21D - Treatment of the materials before passing to the paper-making machine
D21F - Paper-making machines; methods of producing paper thereon
D21G - Calenders; accessories for paper-making machines
D21H - Pulp compositions; ; impregnating or coating of paper; ; paper not otherwise provided for
D21J - Fibreboard; manufacture of articles from cellulosic fibrous suspensions or from papier-mâché
E01 - Construction of roads, railways, or bridges
E01B - Permanent way; permanent-way tools; machines for making railways of all kinds
E01C - Construction of, or surfaces for, roads, sports grounds, or the like; machines or auxiliary tools ...
E01D - Bridges
E01F - Additional work, such as equipping roads or the construction of platforms, helicopter landing ...
E01H - Street cleaning; cleaning of permanent ways; cleaning beaches; cleaning land; dispersing fog in ...
E02 - Hydraulic engineering; foundations; soil-shifting
E02B - Hydraulic engineering
E02C - Ship-lifting devices or mechanisms
E02D - Foundations; excavations; embankments; underground or underwater structures
E02F - Dredging; soil-shifting
E03 - Water supply; sewerage
E03C - Domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water; sinks
E03D - Water-closets or urinals with flushing devices; flushing valves therefor
E03F - Sewers; cesspools
E04 - Building
E04B - General building constructions; walls, e.g. partitions; roofs; floors; ceilings; insulation or ...
E04C - Structural elements; building materials
E04D - Roof coverings; sky-lights; gutters; roof-working tools
E04F - Finishing work on buildings, e.g. stairs, floors
E04G - Scaffolding; forms; shuttering; building implements or other building aids, or their use; handling ...
E04H - Buildings or like structures for particular purposes; swimming or splash baths or pools; masts; ...
E05 - Locks; keys; window or door fittings; safes
E05B - Locks; accessories therefor; handcuffs
E05C - Bolts or fastening devices for wings, specially for doors or windows
E05D - Hinges or other suspension devices for doors, windows, or wings
E05F - Devices for moving wings into open or closed position; checks for wings; wing fittings not ...
E05G - Safes or strong-rooms for valuables; bank protection devices; safety transaction partitions
E06 - Doors, windows, shutters, or roller blinds, in general; ladders
E06B - Fixed or movable closures for openings in buildings, vehicles, fences, or like enclosures, in ...
E06C - Ladders
Earth or rock drilling; mining
E21 - Earth or rock drilling; mining
E21B - Earth or rock drilling; obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of ...
E21C - Mining or quarrying
E21D - Shafts; tunnels; galleries; large underground chambers
E21F - Safety devices, transport, filling-up, rescue, ventilation, or drainage in or of mines or tunnels
Engines or pumps
F01 - Machines or engines in general; engine plants in general; steam engines
F01C - Rotary-piston or oscillating-piston machines or engines
F01D - Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines
F01K - Steam engine plants; steam accumulators; engine plants not otherwise provided for; engines using ...
F01L - Cyclically operating valves for machines or engines
F01M - Lubricating of machines or engines in general; lubricating internal-combustion engines; crankcase ...
F01N - Gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines in general; gas-flow silencers or ...
F01P - Cooling of machines or engines in general; cooling of internal-combustion engines
F02 - Combustion engines; hot-gas or combustion-product engine plants
F02B - Internal-combustion piston engines; combustion engines in general
F02C - Gas-turbine plants; air intakes for jet-propulsion plants; controlling fuel supply in air- ...
F02D - Controlling combustion engines
F02F - Cylinders, pistons, or casings for combustion engines; arrangements of sealings in combustion ...
F02G - Hot-gas or combustion-product positive-displacement engine plants; use of waste heat of combustion ...
F02K - Jet-propulsion plants
F02M - Supplying combustion engines in general with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof
F02N - Starting of combustion engines; starting aids for such engines, not otherwise provided for
F02P - Ignition, other than compression ignition, for internal-combustion engines; testing of ignition ...
F03 - Machines or engines for liquids; wind, spring, or weight motors; producing mechanical power or a ...
F03C - Positive-displacement engines driven by liquids
F03D - Wind motors
F03G - Spring, weight, inertia, or like motors; mechanical-power-producing devices or mechanisms, not ...
F03H - Producing a reactive propulsive thrust, not otherwise provided for
F04 - Positive-displacement machines for liquids; pumps for liquids or elastic fluids
F04B - Positive-displacement machines for liquids; pumps
F04C - Rotary-piston, or oscillating-piston, positive-displacement machines for liquids; rotary-piston, ...
F04D - Non-positive-displacement pumps
F04F - Pumping of fluid by direct contact of another fluid or by using inertia of fluid to be pumped; ...
Engineering in general
F15 - Fluid-pressure actuators; hydraulics or pneumatics in general
F15C - Fluid-circuit elements predominantly used for computing or control purposes
F15D - Fluid dynamics, i.e. methods or means for influencing the flow of gases or liquids
F16 - Engineering elements or units; general measures for producing and maintaining effective ...
F16B - Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together, e.g. nails, ...
F16C - Shafts; flexible shafts; elements of crankshaft mechanisms; rotary bodies other than gearing ...
F16D - Couplings for transmitting rotation; clutches; brakes
F16F - Springs; shock-absorbers; means for damping vibration
F16G - Belts, cables, or ropes, predominantly used for driving purposes; chains; fittings predominantly ...
F16H - Gearing
F16J - Pistons; cylinders; pressure vessels in general; sealings
F16K - Valves; taps; cocks; actuating-floats; devices for venting or aerating
F16L - Pipes; joints or fittings for pipes; supports for pipes, cables or protective tubing; means for ...
F16M - Frames, casings, or beds, of engines or other machines or apparatus, not specific to an engine, ...
F16N - Lubricating
F16P - Safety devices in general
F16S - Constructional elements in general; structures built-up from such elements, in general
F16T - Steam traps or like apparatus for draining-off liquids from enclosures predominantly containing ...
F17 - Storing or distributing gases or liquids
F17C - Vessels for containing or storing compressed, liquefied, or solidified gases; fixed-capacity gas- ...
F17D - Pipe-line systems; pipe-lines
Lighting; heating
F21 - Lighting
F21K - Light sources not otherwise provided for
F21L - Lighting devices or systems thereof, being portable or specially adapted for transportation
F21S - Non-portable lighting devices or systems thereof
F21V - Functional features or details of lighting devices or systems thereof; structural combinations of ...
F22 - Steam generation
F22D - Preheating, or accumulating preheated, feed-water; feed-water supply; controlling water level; ...
F22G - Superheating of steam
F23 - Combustion apparatus; combustion processes
F23B - Methods or apparatus for combustion using only solid fuel
F23C - Methods or apparatus for combustion using fluent fuel
F23D - Burners
F23G - Cremation furnaces; consuming waste by combustion
F23H - Grates; cleaning or raking grates
F23J - Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues; flues
F23K - Feeding fuel to combustion apparatus
F23L - Air supply; draught-inducing; supplying non-combustible liquid or gas
F23M - Constructional details of combustion chambers, not otherwise provided for
F23N - Regulating or controlling combustion
F23Q - Ignition; extinguishing devices
F23R - Generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity, e.g. gas-turbine combustion ...
F24 - Heating; ranges; ventilating
F24C - Other domestic stoves or ranges; details of domestic stoves or ranges, of general application
F24D - Domestic- or space-heating systems, e.g. central heating systems; domestic hot-water supply ...
F24F - Air-conditioning; air-humidification; ventilation; use of air currents for screening
F24H - Fluid heaters, e.g. water or air heaters, having heat-generating means, in general
F24J - Production or use of heat not otherwise provided for
F25 - Refrigeration or cooling; combined heating and refrigeration systems; heat pump systems; ...
F25B - Refrigeration machines, plants, or systems; combined heating and refrigeration systems; heat pump ...
F25C - Production, working, storing or distribution of ice
F25D - Refrigerators; cold rooms; ice-boxes; cooling or freezing apparatus not covered by any other ...
F25J - Liquefaction, solidification, or separation of gases or gaseous mixtures by pressure and cold ...
F26 - Drying
F26B - Drying solid materials or objects by removing liquid therefrom
F27 - Furnaces; kilns; ovens; retorts
F27B - Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts in general; open sintering or like apparatus
F27D - Details or accessories of furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts, in so far as they are of kinds ...
F28 - Heat exchange in general
F28C - Heat-exchange apparatus, not provided for in another subclass, in which the heat-exchange media ...
F28D - Heat-exchange apparatus, not provided for in another subclass, in which the heat-exchange media do ...
F28F - Details of heat-exchange or heat-transfer apparatus, of general application
F28G - Cleaning of internal or external surfaces of heat-exchange or heat-transfer conduits, e.g. water ...
Weapons; blasting
F41 - Weapons
F41B - Weapons for projecting missiles without use of explosive or combustible propellant charge; weapons ...
F41C - Smallarms, e.g. pistols, rifles; accessories therefor
F41F - Apparatus for launching projectiles or missiles from barrels, e.g. cannons; launchers for rockets ...
F41G - Weapon sights; aiming
F41H - Armour; armoured turrets; armoured or armed vehicles; means of attack or defence, e.g. camouflage, ...
F41J - Targets; target ranges; bullet catchers
F42 - Ammunition; blasting
F42B - Explosive charges, e.g. for blasting; fireworks; ammunition
F42C - Ammunition fuzes; arming or safety means therefor
F42D - Blasting
G01 - Measuring; testing
G01B - Measuring length, thickness or similar linear dimensions; measuring angles; measuring areas; ...
G01C - Measuring distances, levels or bearings; surveying; navigation; gyroscopic instruments; ...
G01D - Measuring not specially adapted for a specific variable; arrangements for measuring two or more ...
G01F - Measuring volume, volume flow, mass flow, or liquid level; metering by volume
G01G - Weighing
G01H - Measurement of mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
G01J - Measurement of intensity, velocity, spectral content, polarisation, phase or pulse characteristics ...
G01K - Measuring temperature; measuring quantity of heat; thermally-sensitive elements not otherwise ...
G01L - Measuring force, stress, torque, work, mechanical power, mechanical efficiency, or fluid pressure
G01M - Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures; testing structures or apparatus not ...
G01N - Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties
G01P - Measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, deceleration, or shock; indicating presence, ...
G01R - Measuring electric variables; measuring magnetic variables
G01S - Radio direction-finding; radio navigation; determining distance or velocity by use of radio waves; ...
G01T - Measurement of nuclear or x-radiation
G01V - Geophysics; gravitational measurements; detecting masses or objects; tags
G01W - Meteorology
G02 - Optics
G02B - Optical elements, systems, or apparatus
G02C - Spectacles; sunglasses or goggles insofar as they have the same features as spectacles; contact ...
G02F - Devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical ...
G03 - Photography; cinematography; analogous techniques using waves other than optical waves; ...
G03B - Apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs or for projecting or viewing them; apparatus or ...
G03C - Photosensitive materials for photographic purposes; photographic processes, e.g. cine, x-ray, ...
G03D - Apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials; accessories therefor
G03F - Photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. for printing, for processing of ...
G03G - Electrography; electrophotography; magnetography
G03H - Holographic processes or apparatus
G04 - Horology
G04B - Mechanically-driven clocks or watches; mechanical parts of clocks or watches in general; time- ...
G04C - Electromechanical clocks or watches
G04D - Apparatus or tools specially designed for making or maintaining clocks or watches
G04F - Time-interval measuring
G04G - Electronic time-pieces
G05 - Controlling; regulating
G05B - Control or regulating systems in general; functional elements of such systems; monitoring or ...
G05D - Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables
G05F - Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables
G05G - Control devices or systems insofar as characterised by mechanical features only
G06 - Computing; calculating; counting
G06D - Digital fluid-pressure computing devices
G06E - Optical computing devices
G06F - Electric digital data processing
G06G - Analogue computers
G06J - Hybrid computing arrangements
G06K - Recognition of data; presentation of data; record carriers; handling record carriers
G06M - Counting mechanisms; counting of objects not otherwise provided for
G06N - Computer systems based on specific computational models
G06Q - Data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for administrative, commercial, financial, ...
G06T - Image data processing or generation, in general
G07 - Checking-devices
G07B - Ticket-issuing apparatus; fare-registering apparatus; franking apparatus
G07C - Time or attendance registers; registering or indicating the working of machines; generating random ...
G07D - Sorting, testing, changing, delivering, or otherwise handling coins; testing or changing paper ...
G07F - Coin-freed or like apparatus
G07G - Registering the receipt of cash, valuables, or tokens
G08 - Signalling
G08B - Signalling or calling systems; order telegraphs; alarm systems
G08C - Transmission systems for measured values, control or similar signals
G08G - Traffic control systems
G09 - Educating; cryptography; display; advertising; seals
G09B - Educational or demonstration appliances; appliances for teaching, or communicating with, the ...
G09C - Ciphering or deciphering apparatus for cryptographic or other purposes involving the need for ...
G09D - Railway or like time or fare tables; perpetual calendars
G09F - Displaying; advertising; signs; labels or name-plates; seals
G09G - Arrangements or circuits for control of indicating devices using static means to present variable ...
G10 - Musical instruments; acoustics
G10C - Pianos
G10D - Musical instruments not otherwise provided for
G10F - Automatic musical instruments
G10G - Aids for music
G10H - Electrophonic musical instruments
G10K - Sound-producing devices; acoustics not otherwise provided for
G10L - Speech analysis or synthesis; speech recognition
G11 - Information storage
G11B - Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer
G11C - Static stores
G12 - Instrument details
G12B - Details of instruments, or comparable details of other apparatus, not otherwise provided for
G21 - Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering
G21B - Fusion reactors
G21C - Nuclear reactors
G21D - Nuclear power plant
G21F - Protection against x-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation or particle bombardment; ...
G21G - Conversion of chemical elements; radioactive sources
G21H - Obtaining energy from radioactive sources; applications of radiation from radioactive sources; ...
G21J - Nuclear explosives; applications thereof
G21K - Techniques for handling particles or electromagnetic radiation not otherwise provided for; ...
H01 - Basic electric elements
H01B - Cables; conductors; insulators; selection of materials for their conductive, insulating, or ...
H01C - Resistors
H01F - Magnets; inductances; transformers; selection of materials for their magnetic properties
H01G - Capacitors; capacitors, rectifiers, detectors, switching devices, light-sensitive or temperature- ...
H01H - Electric switches; relays; selectors; emergency protective devices
H01J - Electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps
H01K - Electric incandescent lamps
H01L - Semiconductor devices; electric solid state devices not otherwise provided for
H01M - Processes or means, e.g. batteries, for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical ...
H01P - Waveguides; resonators, lines or other devices of the waveguide type
H01Q - Aerials
H01R - Electrically-conductive connections; structural associations of a plurality of mutually-insulated ...
H01S - Devices using stimulated emission
H01T - Spark gaps; overvoltage arresters using spark gaps; sparking plugs; corona devices; generating ...
H02 - Generation, conversion, or distribution of electric power
H02B - Boards, substations, or switching arrangements for the supply or distribution of electric power
H02G - Installation of electric cables or lines, or of combined optical and electric cables or lines
H02H - Emergency protective circuit arrangements
H02J - Circuit arrangements or systems for supplying or distributing electric power; systems for storing ...
H02K - Dynamo-electric machines
H02M - Apparatus for conversion between ac and ac, between ac and dc, or between dc and dc, and for use ...
H02N - Electric machines not otherwise provided for
H02P - Control or regulation of electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters; controlling ...
H03 - Basic electronic circuitry
H03B - Generation of oscillations, directly or by frequency-changing, by circuits employing active ...
H03C - Modulation
H03D - Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another
H03F - Amplifiers
H03G - Control of amplification
H03H - Impedance networks, e.g. resonant circuits; resonators
H03J - Tuning resonant circuits; selecting resonant circuits
H03K - Pulse technique
H03L - Automatic control, starting, synchronisation, or stabilisation of generators of electronic ...
H03M - Coding, decoding or code conversion, in general
H04 - Electric communication technique
H04B - Transmission
H04H - Broadcast communication
H04J - Multiplex communication
H04K - Secret communication; jamming of communication
H04L - Transmission of digital information, e.g. telegraphic communication
H04M - Telephonic communication
H04N - Pictorial communication, e.g. television
H04Q - Selecting
H04R - Loudspeakers, microphones, gramophone pick-ups or like acoustic electromechanical transducers; ...
H04S - Stereophonic systems
H04W - Wireless communication networks
H05 - Electric techniques not otherwise provided for
H05B - Electric heating; electric lighting not otherwise provided for
H05C - Electric circuits or apparatus specially designed for use in equipment for killing, stunning, ...
H05F - Static electricity; naturally-occurring electricity
H05G - X-ray technique
H05H - Plasma technique; production of accelerated electrically- charged particles or of neutrons; ...
H05K - Printed circuits; casings or constructional details of electric apparatus; manufacture of ...